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Important Long Questions
Position of Hydrogen Hydrides ionization energy Down’s cell Nelson cell Role of lime in industries Role of gypsum The peculiar behavior of Li and Be open hearth process Electrochemical theory Bessemer’s process Manufacture of wrought iron Isomerism sp3 hybridization Cracking of petroleum preparation of alkynes Conversion of acetylene to divinyl acetylene and benzene preparation of benzene stability of benzene sulphonation and nitration Friedel craft reaction SNI and SN2 B-Elimination reaction preparation of phenol Acidic behavior of phenol industrial preparation of alcohol Addition of sodium bisulfite Adol condensation Cannizzaro reaction Haloform reaction recycling industrial waste effluents pesticides purification of water Explain the peculiar behavior of beryllium. Write two similarities and two dissimilarities of hydrogen with an element of IA group. (alkali metals) Write two similarities and two dissimilarities of hydrogen with IVA group of the element. Complete and balance the following equations i. Li2O + H2O. Ii. Na2O + H2O à iii. Mg + (OH) 2 iv. NaNO3 Write a note on aluminum silicate. Write a method for the preparation of water glass. Also, write use of water glass. Write any four applications of noble gases. Write uses of neon and argon. Explain the β elimination reaction ‘E2’ with an example An example of the hybridization of Explain Sp3 mode. Define sp hybridization. Explain it with example of ethyne. Explain nucleophilic substitution of alkyl halides of the bimolecular SN2 mechanism. Discuss acidic nature of alkynes with examples. Write a note on halogenations of alkalis What are aldols?
Explain aldol condensation reaction mechanism for condensation of ethanol. Write any four chemical methods for preparation of benzene. Give reactions of benzene with respect to i. Nitration ii. Sulphonation
(2) Give the reaction of phenol with i. HNO3 ii. H2SO4 iii. NaOH iv. Zn v. CH3COCL vi.
H2 Write chemical reaction of ethene with the following: HCl ii. Br2 iii.O3 iv. HOX Write four uses of acetaldehyde.
What happens when following compounds are heated?
Ammonium acetate ii. Calcium acetate Write formulas of Beryl ii. Asbestos ii. Magnetite iv. Haematite v. Formaldehyde vi. Acetaldehyde Important
What is lanthanide contraction?
Write two differences of Be with its family members Name various classes of hydrides.
Why metallic character increases from top to bottom in a group of metals? Alkali metals give ionic hydrides. Why?
Give four uses of nitric acid. Oxidation state is usually the same in a group. Why?
Give any two similarities and two differences of hydrogen with IVA group. Why is 2% gypsum added to cement?
Give P2O5 reaction with cold and hot water The aqueous solution of borax is alkaline. Give reason.
(2) What is carbonization?
Explain the structure of CO2. Write carbon content in pig iron and wrought iron. Write two uses of sodium silicate.
(2) How borax can be prepared from colemanite?
Give equation Write names and formulas of oxyacids of nitrogen. What is iodized salt?
Write any two uses of Krypton. What are Freons and Teflon?
Describe two uses of helium. Why solubility increases noble gases down the group?
Why does the element VIA show more oxygen than other oxidation states? Write down two chemical equations that show that H2SO4 is a dehydrating agent. Describe chromyl chloride test for chloride radical. Also, write the chemical equation in support of your answer.
(2) How octane number of gasoline is improved?
Explain with example. What are aromatic compounds? Explain with examples. Explain Markownikov’s rule with a suitable example.
(2) Convert ethyne into acetaldehyde. Convert acetaldehyde into lactic acid. Give mechanism of nitration of benzene. Give reaction of benzene with ozone. What are alicyclic compounds?
Give two examples. What are heterocyclic compounds?
What is leaving group and substrate?
Give reaction of Grignard’s reagent with CO2 followed by hydrolysis in acid medium. Give mechanism of the SN1 reaction. Convert acetone into ethyl alcohol. Prepare acetone from calcium acetate. Write four uses of ethyl alcohol.v How are primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols identified?
Water has a higher boiling point than ethanol. Explain. What is chemical oxygen demand?
(2) Explain purification of water used by the coagulating agent. Define sacrificial corrosion. Write the reaction of phenylhydrazine with acetaldehyde and acetone. What is Fehling’s solution to identify the aldehyde?
Write the functional group of aldehyde and ketone, giving an example of each. Write the formula of glycine and alanine. How are cis and trans alkalis produced?
Give responses. How amino acids are prepared by the Strecker method? Define saponification number. Give example.
(2) What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
Define iodine number. Why iodine has metallic luster?
What reaction takes place in the decomposition zone during manufacturing of cement?
What kind of wood raw material is used in the paper industry? Write two woody and two nonwoody raw materials for paper pulp manufacture. How is acetylene converted into benzene? Give equation.
(2) Define resonance energy. Give resonance energy of benzene. How is benzene converted into maleic acid by catalytic oxidation?
How will you prepare diethyl ammine from C2H5Br?
How will you distinguish between methanol and ethanol by one test?
Why phenol is acidic in nature? Write structure if cholesterol. What us peptide bond?
Write the formula of a dipeptide. What are macronutrients?
What is the role of chlorofluorocarbons in destroying ozone?
Write names of components of the environment. What is depolymerization of carbon? Where it is used?
Describe preparation of formalin on a commercial scale from methyl alcohol. Tollen’s test is also called silver mirror test. Justify it. Define neutral amino acids with an example. How carboxylic acid is converted into a-amino acids?
Define with example condensation of polymerization. What do you mean by rancidity of oils and fats? Why it happens?
(2) What is the need for fertilizers?
What do you mean by prilling of urea?